With all of this wine tasting all over the Willamette Valley that I did before, during, and after the Wine Bloggers Conference, I thought we should visit the different AVAs as well as the soil types. Since the combination of these two plus a little magic creates a terroir, it is important to note what variables can impact the wines that you love.
Now I am no geologist, or an enologist, but I do know something about soil and the mechanics of it. That said, this is just my opinion. You should go out and form your own but tasting wines from all over the Willamette! Using Pinot Noir as my baseline, since it seems to show the characteristics of the terroir the most clearly, here is a bit of dirt from the Willamette.
Coming from a state that has over 100 distinct AVAs, many of which are widely known for their Pinot Noirs (Santa Lucia Highlands, Russian River Valley, Carneros, Anderson Valley to name a few), I have acquired a particular taste for elegant, earthy, austere wines. The Willamette Valley while offering a wide variety ina small region, offers several different and distinct regions, all of which have an overwhelming style of wine that is produced in each.
First, the Willamette Valley has six sub-AVAs within the greater Willamette Valley AVA. The larger AVA was established in 1984, while the first vineyards were planted around 1965. The rebels that really started the Willamette trend planted in the mid 1970s. Each of the 6 sub-AVA has a primary soil type, which can produce vastly different results when combined with the weather patterns. The sub-AVAs today, with more proposed (roughly North to South) are:
Chehalem Mountains – the newest AVA, was established in 2006 and is the closest to the metro area of Portland. The mountains were formed when the seabeds were uplifted, filling with lava beds and overblown with silt. This gives the area quite a diverse soil base.
Dundee Hills – the most well known, with the largest amount of wineries. Established in 2004, it is the oldest AVA geologically, they were formed 15 million years ago when lava flows from eastern Washington flowed down the Willamette. Then, earthquakes and tectonic shifts created the Coast Range, and further shaking created the Dundee Hills. During the Missoula Floods, when the glaciers melted in weather patterns over thousands of years, layers of sediment were repeatedly poured over the area creating rich sedimentary layers. The deeper underlying Jory soils poke up through the hills above the flood plain.
Ribbon Ridge – is a short ridgeline that contains mostly ocean sediment, created from tectonic uplift. With finer and more uniform sedimentary soils, it is unique enough to warrant their own AVA, established in 2005, it is a smaller AVA contained within the Chehalem Mountains.
McMinnville - Also established in 2005, the McMinnville AVA rises from 200 to 1000 feet in elevation. When the Coast Range was created, fingers of lava flowed in to McMinnville, leaving basalt fingers, that are oddballs in the area of mostly marine sediment. McMinnville also benefits from the cool Van Duzer winds, which flow through from the coast, that cool down the vineyards and help dry the vines, preventing mildew during humid summer days.
Yamhill-Carlton – Established in 2004 addition, this AVA ranges from 200 to 1000 feet in elevation, and is in the rain shadow of the Coast Range. A horseshoe shape, the rural landscape hides most of the wine making activity here. Coarser grained marine sediment soils are some of the oldest in the region, and they provide excellent drainage, perfect for vines. The vines here tend to ripen earlier and more completely thanks in part to this excellent drainage.
Eola-Amity – the furthest south, Eola-Amity was created in 2006, and stretches from the hamlet of Amity in the north, to the city of Salem in the south. The Van Duzer winds are steady, which cools the summer temperatures. Eola-Amity sits on a basalt plateau, which is on top of the marine sediment layer. The plateau has been rippled and wrinkled thanks to tectonic activity, and the Eola-Amity hills are part of this wrinkle pattern.
Now that we have the lay of the land, we can start to look at what soil types are in each region. Soil types impact growth patterns and drainage, which in turn impact ripening patterns and base flavor profiles.
Jory is the primary soil type in the Dundee Hills. A volcanic soil that is mostly basalt, Jory is found in most vineyards in Dundee Hills. Filled with iron and clay, it is lush and full of nutrients. Jory is also a wet soil, and it will stick together if you compact it in your hand. Formed when massive lava flows covered most of Washington and Oregon with a layer of basalt, Jory grown Pinot Noirs tend to have a classic cherry and red fruit profile, with a strong minerality component. Jory is found in the Dundee Hills, and produces classic cherry, red fruit and spicy Pinot Noirs.
Willakenzie – a sedimentary soil, formed when western Oregon was once 8000 feet under the sea. When the Coast Range and the Cascade Mountains were formed by tectonic shifts, the seabed was exposed, leaving Willakenzie soils made of marine sediment. In some places, this exposed seabed is covered by a layer of volcanic soil. The dry and brittle soil forces vines to reach deep in to the crust, which creates dark wines with structured spice and cola flavors. More black than red fruit, Willakenzie is found in McMinnville, Ribbon Ridge, and Yamhill-Carolton.
Loess (Laurelwood) - is a silty loam soil, and is a very thin layer, unlike the Jory or Willakenzie which form a more substantial layer of soil. With Loess, there is always another soil type underneath the thin layer, as it is primarily windblown. A dusty sedimentary soil, it is fertile and drains well. Pinot Noirs from Loess tend to be bright red fruit, with an underlying earthy flavor, and a sprinkling of white pepper. Loess is particularly found in Chehalam Mountains.
Soil types, weather, style, and seasons all impact the terroir of a wine growing region. Many of these factors are said to be similar to Burgundy. I am not particularly well versed in the wines of France, so I can’t say for sure, but I do know that there is something very special about Oregon, and Oregon Pinot Noir in particular.
While every winemaker has their hand in creating every wine, and a house style, the terroir of a vineyard creates the baseline for these wines. My personal taste has shown me that I am a big fan of the 2007 vintage, with 2010 comign hot on the hells. 2008 is turnign out to be a very interesting vinetage as well, alhtough I find it bigger and bolder than the 2007s or 2010s. 2009 on the other hand? The jury is still out. I also know that I love the bright fruit and tangy earth from the Dundee Hills and Ribbon Ridge, and that I’m not a fan of the wines from Eola-Amity, which are bigger, bolder, and dark.
There were a few wines I just plain didn’t care for, but overwhelmingly, the wines from the Willamette Valley, Pinot Noirs, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc and further south, Syrah, as well as renegade wines produced in the middle of Pinot heaven are showcases of the region. With the average winery in Willamette producing less than 1000 cases, it’s rare to find a producer that has a homogeneous style that they try to repeat year over year. Even the larger producers, such as Willamette Valley Vineyards, strive for uniqueness and terroir driven wines. This makes it a very special place indeed.
I’m looking forward to tasting more and seeing what happens in Oregon in the coming years!